Criminal investigation responses 1. The elements of robbery are the wrongful taking of personal property, from the person or in the person’s presence, or against the person’s will by using threat of force (Orthmann et al., 2017). Robberies are classified into four categories, which are residential, commercial, street, or vehicle driver robberies (Orthmann et al., 2017). Residential robberies include those that happen in private homes, hotel and motel rooms, garages, and elevators (Orthmann et al., 2017). Commercial robberies involve convenience stores, loan companies, jewelry stores, liquor stores, gasoline or service stations, and bars (Orthmann et al., 2017). Street robberies usually happen on public streets, sidewalks, alleys, and parking lots (Orthmann et al., 2017). The victim and perpetrator are both on foot, and physical force is commonly the weapon. Vehicle-driver robberies typically involve buses, trucks, armored trucks, personal cars, messenger vehicles, and taxi drivers (Orthmann et al., 2017).One example of commercial robbery would be a man who conducted a stick up at a local convenience store using a knife and demanded all the cash. In this case, the man is using threat of force to unlawfully take the store owner’s money in their own presence, thus making it the crime of robbery. An investigator would talk to any witnesses who were in the store, check video footage, check the counter for fingerprints, and gather a description of how the perpetrator looked. Another example of residential robbery would be a couple at a hotel who is stopped with an individual with a gun in the elevator and asked for their belongings. In this case, threat of force was used by the gun, their belongings were taken in their presence, and he wrongfully took their belongings. An investigator might ask the hotel for the video footage to see what happened, look for witnesses who might have heard or say something, and ask to see if any of the cards were used. The final example of a vehicle robbery would be a taxi driver who is held at knifepoint and is asked for all the cash they had for the day and their personal belongings. The perpetrator here is using a knife to threat the driver, wrongfully taking their belongings, and it is taking it their presence. Investigators can investigate where the perpetrator was picked up and dropped off to see where they might have taken off to. They can utilize video footage, taxi driver’s credit card statement, taxi drivers’ description of the perpetrator, and any nearby witnesses.
2. Robbery is a specific intent crime and it is taking property from victim’s person or presence without consent by force or threat with the intent to permanently deprive. Elements of robbery varies due to certain attributes of robbery and because of these differences the state has chosen to divide robbery into first, second, and third degrees depending on the seriousness of the crime. Classifications of robberies are Residential: homes, hotel rooms, garages, elevators (sub group: home invaders). Commercial: stores/restaurants, etc. Street: public streets, sidewalks, alleys, parking lots. Vehicle: driver robberies: drivers of taxis, buses, personal cars, etc are often targeted. Residential burglary occurs in buildings and structures used for living and residing in, even if unoccupied during burglary. As far as commercial, it involves churches, schools, shops, etc. and is usually committed by 2 or more people.
EXAMPLE, a person who shoves(force) a college student walking home from a bar and steals the student’s cell phone out of his or her hand has committed robbery. (Residential)
EXAMPLE, if Jane corners someone in an alley, punch her and demand that she gives her wallet, then Jane has committed a robbery by force. (Street)
EXAMPLE, a women working at forever 21 is passed a note requesting funds and is shown a handgun. (Commercial)
An investigator may ask the college security officers for security footage to see if they can get an image of the suspect who stole the cellphone. An investigator may ask locals in the area if anyone noticed any out of the ordinary or suspicious crime activity near the alley. An investigator can ask for security footages of the surveillance cameras for the store.
3. The crime of a robbery involves the taking of the property of another from his or her person or in their presence by violence, intimidation, or threat with the intent to deprive them of it permanently. Robberies are classified as residential, commercial, street, or vehicle driver. Residential robberies are those that occur in homes, hotels, motels, garages, and elevators. Commercial robberies are stores, loan companies, gas stations, and bars. Street robberies are committed in public streets, sidewalks, alleys, and parking lots. Vehicle-driver robberies are taxi drivers, buses, trucks, delivery, personal cars, and armored trucks.
Example 1: Someone is walking on the streets and they snatch the person’s phone from their hands and run off. This an intimidation and the police would have to obtain as many details from the victim.
Example 2: Someone does a home invasion and takes all the jewelry and electronics, in the process, they murder the homeowners. The copy will have to take fingerprints and secure the crime scene. Also, obtain any footage if possible. This would be a form of violence.
Example 3. A person goes into a supermarket and pulls out a gun at the cashiers and demands money. This is a threat and the police officers would have to take people’s testimonies and obtain footage from the store.
4. The elements of the crime of robbery are the wrongful taking of personal property from the person or in the persons presence, against the persons will by force or threat of force. Most robbers carry a weapon or other threatening items and make a demand for desired money or property. Due to states having different categories or degrees of robbery most states statues follow these common elements.Robberies are classified into different categories. Those categories are residential robberies, commercial robberies, street robberies, vehicle driver robberies, carjacking, bank robbery and ATM’s robbery (Hess, 2017, p. 412-17). The three examples of robbery I chose to name and explain are residential robberies, carjacking, and bank robbery. Residential robberies occur in private homes, hotel rooms, garages, and elevators. These robberies are less frequent than other types but are dangerous and traumatic. Carjacking is taking a motor vehicle by force or threat of force. The FBI may investigate the crime. The force may consist of use of a handgun, club, machete, knife or fists. Robberies are within the jurisdiction of the FBI, the state, and the community in which the crime occurred. The type of bank robbery commonly portrayed in movies is known as takeover robbery. This is when multiple perpetrators are heavily armed, wearing masks/disguises, and conduct a hostile violence hangover of a bank.
For each crime investigators would have to determine the legal owner of the property taken. Describe completely the property and its value. Record the words, gestures, motions, or actions the robber used to gain control of the property (Hess, 2017, p. 422). Obtain a complete description of the robbers’ words actions and any weapon used or threatened to be used. Also, any physical evidence that can connect a suspect with the robbery including fingerprints, DNA, shoe prints, tire prince, restraining devices, fibers and hairs, and the stolen property.
5. Robbery is a felony that involves a person stealing property from another either in their presence or directly from the victim. The elements of robbery are wrongful taking of personal property, from the person or in the presence of that person, and against the person’s will by the use of force or threats. There are different classifications of robbery such as residential, commercial, street, vehicle-driver, carjacking, bank robbery, and atm robberies. For instance, in a vehicle driver robbery, the robber stopped an Amazon delivery truck to steal the merchandise in the truck. The robber can profit a lot from these merchandise by selling them. The robber uses a bat to disable the delivery driver and takes off with the truck of merchandise. The three elements of robbery are definitely in this example. He is wrongfully taking other people’s packages, violently beating the driver with a weapon, and stealing the delivery truck from the driver. Now in this example, this can be considered both vehicle driver robbery and carjacking. Another example is if someone robbed a jewelry store upon closing. This is called commercial robbery. The robber waited until there was only one worker in the jewelry store and it was closing time. The robber threatened the worker at gunpoint to pack some jewelry and money from the cashier. However, the robber failed to notice the security cameras, and the whole footage was captured. All of the elements of robbery are displayed on the security cameras. The last example is a simple street robbery. A person got robbed at night and their wallet got stolen. The person can report that they got robbed and were threatened if he or she did not follow the instructions.