Discussion PLEASE RESPOND#1 Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology Psychopathology is the scientific study of mental distress, menta

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PLEASE RESPOND#1

Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

Psychopathology is the scientific study of mental distress, mental illness, or manifestation of behavioral experiences that indicate cognitive physiological impairments. Developments of psychopathology are influenced by physiological, biological, and social factors. This context explains how physiological, biological, and social factors influence the development of psychopathology.

Biological

Biological factors include genetic, prenatal damage, brain injuries, and infections. Biological causes focus on physical or organic causes that influence neurotransmitters, neuroanatomy, and neural physiology processes (Arango et al.,2018). As a result of this abstraction and the brain’s physical structure and functioning, individuals get a mental disorder. 

Psychological

Psychological factors are cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and development that impacts individual mental health. These psychological factors also influence psychopathological states’ developments, occurrence, or maintenance. Impairments, cognitive biasness, or dysfunctional beliefs might affect how a person’s brains work or handle stress (Merlo, 2019). Cognitive dysfunctions are primarily associated with emotional and relational processes, contributing to various psychopathological disorders or symptoms.

Social

Social factors primarily include interpersonal and cultural factors that impact psychopathology development. Most of the research conducted extensively focuses on stress, among other factors which add to mental distress. The world comprises people from different cultures; hence each individual is subjected to a different cultural context. For instance, some society believes in spirits where individual are attacked by these evil spirits at night, whispering and attaching them, so they become immobile. Although this might be normal in some societies in western societies and America, these are considered signs of schizophrenia (Cooke & Kinderman, 2018). Therefore interpersonal, cultural, and social factors influence how an individual or the society perceives mental illnesses 

Therefore, psychopathology is the study of mental distress and mental illnesses. However, the developments of Psychopathologies are influenced by social, biological, and biological factors, which impact an individual’s physical structure and individual or social perception of how an individual perceives or understands mental disorders. Therefore psychological, natural, and social factors play a significant role in psychopathology development.

References

Arango, C., Díaz-Caneja, C. M., McGorry, P. D., Rapoport, J., Sommer, I. E., Vorstman, J. A., … & Carpenter, W. (2018). Preventive strategies for mental health. The Lancet Psychiatry5(7), 591-604. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(18)30057-9

Cooke, A., & Kinderman, P. (2018). But what about real mental illnesses?” Alternatives to the disease model approach to “schizophrenia. Journal of Humanistic Psychology58(1), 47-71. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0022167817745621

Merlo, E. M. (2019). Opinion Article: The role of psychological features in chronic diseases, advancements, and perspectives. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology7(3). https://cab.unime.it/journals/index.php/MJCP/article/view/2341

PLEASE RESPOND#2

The biological (genetic and neuroscientific); psychological (behavioral and cognitive processes, emotional, developmental); and social, cultural, and interpersonal factors that influence the development of psychopathology.

     When speaking on the development of psychopathology and the many factors that influences it, there are many different psychological assessments to consider including biological, psychological, social, and interpersonal. Lunansky et al. (2021) state identifying the different influences of symptoms in dynamic psychopathology models may hold promise for increasing treatment efficacy in clinical applications. It is important to understand in mental health the factors and how they impact a nurse practitioners’ multidimensional approach in the treatment of the patient across the lifespan. The biological factors influencing psychopathology can range depending on where the patient is in their lifespan. Determining a person’s psychopathology depends on the age as well as their environment they are in at the specific time. Harden et al. (2019) inform symptoms of psychopathology covary across diagnostic boundaries, and a family history of elevated symptoms for a single psychiatric disorder places an individual at heightened risk for a broad range of other psychiatric disorders. Genetics can have a huge impact on the development of psychopathology from fetus to adulthood, depending on a person’s surroundings, how they grew up and who they grew up around determines their psychopathology and its development thereof. Masten and Kalstabakken (2018) note during the course of human development, it is important to note that gene, environment, and exposure could influence and change the mental health of an individual. Psychological factors such as behavioral and cognitive processes, emotional, and developmental do influence the development of psychopathology as well. Masten and Kalstabakken (2018) inform as children grow older, they increase their active role in their development and exert more choice about their interactions with other people and the environment. How a child or adolescent chooses to spend their time and in what environment they explore whether it be sports or theatre, dating the opposite sex or same sex can have a determination on their psychopathology and where their mental health is progressed. From there to adulthood can impact their mental health when dealing with other psychological factors. Sameroff (2019) informs at the same time; however, transactional models recognize the profound influences of external sociocultural conditions in constraining or altering development. Social, cultural, and interpersonal factors also play a role in the development of psychopathology. Choudhury and Kirmayer (2019) inform culture are not simply a set of traits or characteristics shared by people with a common geographic, historical, or ethnic background and the shifting meaning of culture and psychopathology have implications for efforts to apply cultural neuroscience to psychiatry. In regard to cultural, social, and interpersonal factors related to psychopathology there are many new developments on what those are and continue to evolve today. While a person’s culture is important to understand, many new generations are forming new developments to their culture for example someone with Mexican heritage and culture may develop new social and cultural norms and even different or new interpersonal relationships as they live in America as a Mexican-American. Understanding how these factors may change from person to person helps the nurse practitioner understand how to better understand and treat the patient.

 

 References

Choudhury, S., & Kirmayer, L. J. (2019). Cultural neuroscience and psychopathology: Prospects for cultural psychiatry. Progress in Brain Research, 263–283. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0079-6123(09)17820-2

 Harden, K. P., Engelhardt, L. E., Mann, F. D., Patterson, M. W., Grotzinger, A. D., Savicki, S. L., Thibodeaux, M. L., Freis, S. M., Tackett, J. L., Church, J. A., & Tucker-Drob, E. M. (2020). Genetic associations between executive functions and a general factor of psychopathology. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 59(6), 749–758. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2019.05.006

Lunansky, G., Naberman, J., van Borkulo, C. D., Chen, C., Li, W., & Borsboom, D. (2021). Intervening on psychopathology networks: Evaluating intervention targets through simulations. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/sqhje Masten, A. S., & Kalstabakken, A. W. (2018). Developmental perspectives on psychopathology in children and adolescents. In J. N. Butcher & P. C. Kendall (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Child and adolescent psychopathology (Vol. 2). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000065-002

Sameroff, A. (Ed.). (2019). The transactional model of development: How children and contexts shape each other. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11877-00

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