fashion history 4 short questions Timeline of events – what was happening that was important to the time and influences society, lifestyles, occupations, etc. Use the timeline from the text, but fill in the blanks with important influences to the Zeitgeist and fashion of the times.
How does the fashion of the time reflect the Zeitgeist of the time?
What was the fashion of the time? Ideals, silhouettes, fabrics, design….
The Empire and Romantic Eras 1800–1850
Changes in Europe and the US – who’s in power or in roles of importance (how did they influence change and fashion?)
France – Directoire/Empire; US; England
Industry: coal mining, steel, cotton, wool, linen
Economics and Society – what’s happening and why?
Transportation: roads, canals, railroad; Travel: steam trains and ships; Communication: telegraph
Communications: Newspapers, publications, magazines: Godey’s Lady’s Book
Changing gender roles- Georges Sand, women working
Gold in California
Who are the important people influencing the time and influencing fashion
Artistic styles, architecture; Jacques Louis David
Textile Production: looms and spinners; interchangeable parts; machine-made lace
New fabrications – jacquard, elasticized fabrics, rubber and vulcanizing, denim
Standardization of sizes
New technologies and ways of manufacturing
Brooks Brothers open retail store- ready to wear
Garment Industry in New York: clothing manufacturing and industry growth
Napoleon- who was he?
French Revolution – why? American Revolution – why?
COSTUME: silhouette, Influencers: Napoleon, Josephine
MEN’S: changes (why? to what?); fabrications, silhouettes, main garments, outerwear, hats, hairstyles, footwear, accessories
WOMEN’S: silhouette, fabrics, main garments, footwear, accessories, head wear
What was the Romantic movement and who were the Romantics?
Who was Beau Brummel?
What is Romanticism?
Literature – Romantic Age
Fashion change from Empire to Romantic
COSTUME: Elaborate- boredom from Empire costume, competition among classes because of mass production, knock offs and designers outdoing each other
MEN’S: Silhouette, fabrics, main garments, outerwear, neck wear
WOMEN’S: Silhouette, dresses, fabrics, wraps, walking clothes, hairstyles, bonnets, accessories, undergarments
Spencer Tailcoat PantaloonBicorn Hessian Garrick (Carrick)Cravat StockRedingote WellingtonEmpire Waist MackintoshBetsies Berthas Jockey boot Reticule LorgnettesMutton chopsLeg-o-mutton PelerineFrock coat Crinoline Spats GaitersBurberry
LATE 19TH CENTURY (1850-1899) VICTORIAN/ SECOND EMPIRE:
Timeline of important events of the period
Politics and economics: Industry: France and luxuries; Germany and coal, iron, steel; Abe Lincoln, Civil War; Civil War, Farmers and railroads, coops, railroads and telegraph; Discovery of gold in California, transcontinental railroad
England – Great Exhibition, industrialization
Railroad and Business, robber barons
new technologies and innovations, inventions, changes in transportation, retailing, manufacturing
What was a crapper?
Victorian England – Queen Victoria & Prince Albert
France – Second Empire- France, Louis Napoleon II & Empress Eugenie
Style of Victorian- architecture, interiors, fashion, colors, mood
Health and Hygiene: population boom in US; anesthesia, dress shields in garments; tooth powder, dry cleaning
Charles Frederick Worth, Empress Eugenie;
Retail and Distribution: Bon Marche department store; Mail-order (Montgomery Wards, Sears); Ready-to-wear
technology, manufacture of sewing machines, menswear manufactured in large quantities; first synthetic dye, standardization of men’s wear- army uniforms
Levi Strauss/ Jacob Davis: what did they make?
Charles Frederick Worth, Empress Eugenie
Women’s Roles – changing, influence on fashion; crinoline period, first bustle period, second bustle period, changes in silhouette
MEN’S: Suits, Coats, garments, shirts, neck wear, hats, hairstyles, footwear, sportswear, work clothing
WOMEN’S: changes in silhouette, walking skirts, reform clothing (Amelia Jenks Bloomer), dresses, undergarments, sports costume, hairstyles, hats, house dress, footwear, accessories
Ditto suit Sack suitSack coat Morning coatFrock coat Chesterfield Inverness coat Ulster Sack CoatPrince Albert Coat TuxedoSwallowtail Lounge Suit NorfolkDress Coat Four-in-handMutton ChopsWatch fobSpats Serge de NimesAscotDundreary whiskers MonocleStraw boater/ panama FedoraBloomers Bolero/ZouaveBowler Derby Deerstalker capShirtwaist Rainy DaisiesCrinoline BustleBust ImproverJack Tar suitUnion Suit Fauntleroy suit