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Homework Responses Wk 8 Please prepare a response to each of the attached documents for total of 4 responses. The responses need to be at least 150 words e

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Homework Responses Wk 8 Please prepare a response to each of the attached documents for total of 4 responses. The responses need to be at least 150 words each. The responses should be as if you are talking directly to the person.

Due in 24 hrs. Hello class,
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Student Name: Ryan TrineDate: 11/22/2021

Cyber Terrorism and Cybersecurity
Student Name: Ryan Trine
Date: 11/22/2021

Abstract
cyberspace is a potent tool for terrorist activities and that there is a vast extent of vulnerability for individuals, organizations, and countries. This study adopts a qualitative methodology to analyze the concept of cyberterrorism and the reality of the threat in the world today. The findings indicate that cyberspace is an appropriate medium for terrorist activities. There is a need for proper nomenclature by which the scope of cyberterrorism can be effectively understood. This will form a basis for formulating cybersecurity measures that do not infringe on human rights, such as freedom of speech or expression.

InTRO
Technology is one of the fastest-growing and most transformative single factors in the world today. Technology affects many aspects of people’s lives, including communication, learning, and thinking (Mickeel, 2019). There are positive and negative effects of technology, but we are living in a world where technology is an integral part. Also, these are advances keep touching on more aspects of our daily lives. As a result, people are becoming more dependent on technology for personal life matters and even for work. As technology becomes more invaluable in our lives, people become more dependent on it, and this brings about a unique level of vulnerability.

Continued
It is generally agreed that digital life has negatives in as much as there are positive outcomes associated with technology. According to Anderson and Rainie (2018), fifty percent of the individuals in the study had a substantial agreement that the positives of digital life outweigh the negatives. However, this just signifies that an equal proportion believes in the negative effects of digital life. In a third of the respondents, there is an explicit belief that harms are likely to outweigh the benefits of digital life (Anderson and Rainie, 2018). It is a common consensus that there are deep concerns over the well-being of the people in a technological world. With advances in technology, people have become exposed to fears which could have only qualified in science fiction novels half a century ago (Anderson and Rainie, 2018). Therefore, even as technology advances and people become more dependent on it, it is essential to be wary of the negative effects that come about with technology.

Cyberterrorism
Cyber terrorism is one of the negative effects that are potent in the digital world. This is a broad term encompassing any malicious effort perpetrated through computers or using information technology that is intended to cause disruption or fear on an individual or entity in the community. Cyberterrorism refers to any range of illegal activities conducted through technological and digital devices and techniques (Al Mazari et al., 2018). The use of the prefix “cyber” is aimed at emphasizing the medium on which these activities are propagated (Mayer Lux, 2018). Therefore, cyberterrorism refers to a wide range of malicious activities that take place over cyberspace. Cyberspace can be defined as the system of interconnected infrastructures for digital information and communication that spans the globe (Mayer Lux, 2018). These activities can range from simple actions such as spreading propaganda online, destruction of critical information and even perpetrating terrorist attacks over computer systems (Mayer Lux, 2018). Therefore, understanding cyberterrorism requires a focus on what terrorism is and then putting it in the context of cyberspace which is just a new medium through which these efforts can be propagated.

Problem Statement
Cyberterrorism is an issue of concern today because of the complexity and severity of the issue. It is complex because cyberspace is an infinite place and lacks the confines of a physical world, which suffice for terrorist events perpetrated outside the digital space. In addition, cyberterrorism is a relatively new concept brought about by advances in technology. Also, there is a great dependence on technology that makes cyberterrorism a concern on very many levels. It is an issue within the domestic setting and the personal lives of individuals. It is an issue within organizations where there is the vulnerability of the information systems relied on by a majority of firms today. Also, it is a concern for countries that can be subject to various types of terrorism attacks through cyberspace. Therefore, cybersecurity concerns become applicable in every level of life, especially in the modern world.

Why is cybersecurity important?
Cybersecurity is made necessary by the prevalence of cyberterrorism, especially in a world where people are heavily invested in and dependent on digital technologies. Mayer Lux (2018) proposes an analysis of cyberterrorism using the harm principle, which determines that terrorism does not attack individual interests but rather a collective interest. Terrorism is an issue in the real world that is intended at hijacking the constitutional order of society. Therefore, it is no surprise that as the world becomes more digital, there is a replication of the same level of terrorist activities online. Therefore, cyberterrorism is a replication of the malicious actions that take place in the real world online due to the potency of online platforms and the awareness by the perpetrators of its effectiveness. Therefore, cybersecurity is an issue that is brought about by the increased use and dependence on technology.

PURPOSE STATEMENT
This research is focused on gaining an appreciation of the threat of cyberterrorism and the applicable cybersecurity measures that can overcome the issues. Past literature has ascertained the potency of cyberterrorism has been ascertained by past literature, which examines the severity of the threat and the need to put up prevention measures. For example, in a special report by Gabriel Weimann in 2004, there is a candid explanation of the “realness” of the cyberterrorism threat. The news headlines of the issues of cyberterrorism can inspire fear in anyone who is in possession of any smart device. While these pictures might be exaggerated, there is a great potential for cyberspace to be used as a hub for terrorist activities. The threat in cyberspace is undeniable and has been on an upward path proportional to the extent of use of these platforms. It is an attractive option in the modern-day, particularly owing to its anonymity, the potential to inflict massive damage, and other appeals over the conventional perpetration of crime in the physical world.

CONTINUED
Therefore, even in areas where cyberterrorism has not been experienced to the severity indicated in the headlines and some scholars, the threat is real and has great potency. For this reason, this research is conducted to assess the security measures that can be put in place at the individual level, organizational level, and national level to keep systems protected from outside intruders. The aim is to formulate a knowledge base that can be used to create awareness of cyberterrorism and possible measures to prevent or mitigate the effects of cybersecurity.

RESEARCH QUESTION
What is the potency of the cyberterrorism threat to the individual, organization, or nation, and ways to develop cybersecurity to curb them?
Key Points Addressed
The concept of cyberterrorism and why it is an issue in modern society.
The various ways in which cyberterrorism is a threat to individuals, organizations, and countries.
Policy formulation to counter cyberterrorism.

PROPOSED METHODOLOGY/RESEARCH STRATEGY
The proposed methodology for this study is a qualitative research strategy. Non-numerical data is collected, analyzed, and interpreted in this strategy. This research strategy is effective in the topic of cyberterrorism and cybersecurity because it will be based on the subjective perception of this topic, which I consider to be a social reality (Mcleod, 2019). There are aspects of interpretation and a naturalistic approach to the subject matter associated with the qualitative technique (Mcleod, 2019). This means that it is possible to investigate items within the natural setting, make sense of issues, interpret them, and derive the meanings of the phenomenon to the affected individuals (Mcleod, 2019). Therefore, I find the research strategy effective for this topic hence the preferred option to conduct this study.

Qualitive research
The qualitative research methodology is effective in circumstances where the intention is to gain an in-depth appreciation and understanding of a certain phenomenon or situation (Jaferian et al., 2011). In this case, the phenomenon of interest is cyberterrorism and cybersecurity. Since the research will focus on gaining more details, the qualitative study design becomes an effective methodology. Qualitative research is mainly an exploratory research technique, wherein in our current study, the focus will be on examining details of cyberterrorism. Qualitative research is considered an interpretive form of research because it provides a platform for discovering new ideas and revealing unforeseen occurrences (Yunos and Sulaman, 2017). Qualitative research involves the analysis of content from written or recorded material that can be the output of participant responses or observations and reviews of various literature. It is also a relevant technique for small-scale studies (Yunos and Sulaman, 2017). It is an applicable technique in collecting data through interviews, participant observation, and focus groups.

Current research
In this current research, the focus is on cyberterrorism and the attributes of cyberterrorism with the intention to generate useful suggestions for the improvement of cybersecurity. Therefore, the research will adopt the research framework comprising of interviews and meta-analysis. This framework will align with the research objective that intends to identify and construct the phenomenon’s attributes and develop a model that comprehensively outlines the phenomenon (Yunos and Sulaman, 2017). Therefore, a sample of individuals will be interviewed on cybersecurity, the interviews transcribed, and interpretations made from the responses that will furnish the research question with answers.
It is the assumption in this research that there is up-to-date literature on the subject that will form a conceptual basis and also provide insights that can answer the research questions. The research study will also seek the opinion of individuals who are expected to have a piece of working knowledge on cyberterrorism. It is expected that these sources of information are credible and valid to provide the information being sought. Also, it is an assumption that the data can be obtained conveniently and with ease

Findings / conclusion
The concept of cyberterrorism is elusive. In terms of definition, they vary from politically motivated and violent acts or threats conducted through the internet to preparatory and supporting activities for terrorism acts done through or on the internet (Broeders et al., 2021). These activities range from recruitment, liaison, and financing of terrorist acts. While the concern of governments is usually on violent terrorist acts, it is evident that pure cyberterrorism is yet to be experienced in the world today (Broeders et al., 2021). Terrorism is of the nature of “low probability, high impact,” which calls for careful attention to even activities that can appear harmless (Ruggiero and Vos, 2013). This is particularly so in the wake of the 9/11 attacks and the subsequent position of war against terror.
The digital domain has become a part of modern-day life. This digital life comes with cyber terrorism and threats of cyberterrorism that target individuals, organizations, and nations. Consequently, cyber counterterrorism has become an integral component of national security and law enforcement (White, 2016). For instance, the Federal Bureau of Investigation has a straightforward concept of cyberterrorism and has efforts intended to curb such activities

Continued
The digital domain has become a part of modern-day life. This digital life comes with cyber terrorism and threats of cyberterrorism that target individuals, organizations, and nations. Consequently, cyber counterterrorism has become an integral component of national security and law enforcement (White, 2016). For instance, the Federal Bureau of Investigation has a straightforward concept of cyberterrorism and has efforts intended to curb such activities
Digital technologies bring about endless possibilities, but while this benefits many spheres of human life, it highlights the similarly endless potential threats. According to the National Research Council (2004), we are much more vulnerable than our capacity to survive. There have been past incidences of attacks on cyber financial systems, but the scope has remained undisclosed to preserve an image of integrity (National Research Council, 2004). There have been attacks on the military, and similarly, these attacks have not been fully disclosed for security reasons. It is, however, reported that over sixty percent of computers used by the United States military have been compromised due to cyber-attacks (National Research Council, 2004). It is known that the computer systems and networks used by the public and the same used by the national defense systems; hence they are vulnerable to the same kinds of attacks. Therefore, an intruder will conveniently seek to attack the military systems, which are more critical in achieving the intended objective.

Conclusion
cyberterrorism is a real threat in the world today owing to the evolution of digital technologies and human dependence on them. Digitalism is one of the most transformative factors in the modern world, and with its endless possibilities, there comes vulnerability related to its potential use for terrorist activities. There is a major challenge with understanding the concept hence difficulty in formulating appropriate policies to counter its effects. This paper considers that the concept needs to be analyzed in separation with political influences, economic influences, and media sensationalization. An accurate definition of cyberterrorism will lay a proper basis for formulating appropriate policies without infringing on the rights of the people. There is a fine line between cybersecurity measures and censoring, which could have implications for human rights. In this paper, an operational definition of cyberterrorism, its nature, and its effects is put forth as a basis to formulate cybersecurity measures to protect individuals, organizations, and countries.

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