Marriages Marriages DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY INDIVIDUAL LIFE CYCLES AND FAMILY LIFE CYCLES INDIVIDUAL LIFE CYCLE STAGES ERIK & JOAN ERICKSON Erik

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Marriages Marriages DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY
INDIVIDUAL LIFE CYCLES
AND
FAMILY LIFE CYCLES

INDIVIDUAL LIFE CYCLE STAGES
ERIK & JOAN ERICKSON
Erik Erickson – 1902-1994
Joan Erickson – 1902-1997
Married in 1930

ABOUT ERIK ERICKSON
German-U.S. psychoanalyst, trained in Vienna by Anna Freud.
In 1933 he immigrated to the U.S., where he practiced child psychoanalysis in Boston and joined the Harvard Medical School faculty even though he was not degreed.
In 1936 he moved to Yale University, and in 1938 he began his first studies of cultural influences on psychological development, working with Native American children.
He later taught at UC-Berkeley but left in 1950, during the era of McCarthyism.
Personality development, in Erikson’s view, takes place through a series of identity crises that must be overcome and internalized in preparation for the next developmental stage; he posited eight such stages.

ABOUT JOAN ERICKSON
Born in Toronto and graduated from Barnard College/Columbia University.
Authority on human development, with her husband popularized a theory known as the Eriksonian Life Cycle.
Authored several books solo and several with her husband including Childhood & Society.
Lived in Cambridge and Cape Cod, MA; had two sons and a daughter.

FOR EACH STAGE DESCRIBE
Length of each stage
Description of each stage
Tasks to be accomplished for each stage
Hazards preventing task accomplishment

INDIVIDUAL LIFE STAGES
STAGE I
Trust vs. Mistrust
Birth to one year
Task: Sense of security
Hazards:
Inconsistency
Abuse, neglect,

deprivation

STAGE II
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
2-4 years old
Tasks: starting a ‘self,’ independence, control over self and others
Hazards?
Doing everything for the child
Hypercritical parents

STAGE III
Initiative vs. Guilt
4-5 years of age
Tasks: self-starter
Hazards?
Hypercritical parents
Parents who do everything for their child
Not accomplishing previous stage tasks

STAGE IV
Industry vs. Inferiority
6-12 years old
Tasks: learn value of work
Where?
School, home
Hazards?
Hypercritical parents, failure at school, problems with previous stages

STAGE V
Identity vs. Role Confusion
12-21 years of age (adolescence)
Tasks: clarification of the self
Hazards?
Problem role models, societal non-support, problems in previous stages

STAGE VI
Intimacy vs. Isolation
20s
Tasks: develop intimate

relationships
Hazards?
Problems in previous stages, particularly stage one (trust vs. mistrust) and stage five (identity vs. role confusion)

STAGE VII
Generativity vs. Stagnation
30s-50s
Tasks: feel productive
Where?
Work and family
Hazards?
Problems in previous stages (particularly stages 3 and 4)

STAGE VIII
Integrity vs. Despair
Old Age
Tasks: acceptance of one’s life
Hazards?
Problems in any of previous stages

CULMINATION
Wisdom

FAMILY LIFE CYCLE STAGES
DUVALL & MILLER
Eight stages
Describe stage
Length of each stage
Children or not
Focus of family members
Marital satisfaction rate
Corresponding individual

life stages of family members

STAGE I
BEGINNING FAMILIES
Married couple with no children
Average length of stage is 2 to 3 years
Greatest marital satisfaction experienced

STAGE II
CHILDBEARING FAMILIES
Childbearing about 30 months

apart
Childrearing
Average 2 children/family
Half of women work outside of the home
Average length of stage is 2 years
Marital satisfaction begins to lessen (continues to decline through stage IV or V)

Stage III
FAMILIES WITH PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
Family’s oldest child is 30 months to 6 years
Deeply involved in childrearing
Average length of stage is 3 years

STAGE IV
FAMILIES WITH SCHOOL CHILDREN
Family’s oldest child is between six and 13 years old
With children in school, mom has more free time and most enter work force
Average length of stage is 7 years

STAGE V
FAMILIES WITH ADOLESCENTS
Oldest child is 13 to 20 years old
Marital satisfaction reaches its nadir
Average length of stage is 7 years

STAGE VI
FAMILIES AS LAUNCHING CENTERS
The first child has been launched into the adult world
This stage lasts until the last child leaves home, average 8 years
Marital satisfaction begins to rise

STAGE VII
FAMILIES IN THE MIDDLE YEARS
This stage lasts from the time the last child has left home to retirement
Commonly referred to as the “empty nest syndrome”

STAGE VII CONTINUED
Sometimes adult children return home
“Sandwich generation”
Begin caretaking activities for elderly relatives, especially parents and parents-in-law

“Boomerang Generation”
Adults of any age returning to live w/ their parents
Different now in that many

expect to remain at home
with their parents for some
years, while maintaining their
own social and professional lives.
With many of their friends also

living at home, the stigma of living
with parents is reduced.

50 Year Olds “Home”

STAGE VIII
AGING FAMILIES
Working members of the family have retired
Chronic illnesses begin to take effect
Eventually one of the spouses dies

The surviving spouse may move in with other family members or be cared for by them

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