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Jean Watson is famous for her Caring Science and Human Caring grand theory, whilst Martha Rogers is known for her Science of Unitary Human Beings grand theory. They both view nursing as a science and art well using the term Unitary Human in their theories. I have decided to examine Watson’s “reverentially assisting with basic needs as scared acts, touching mind-body-spirit of the patient and sustaining human dignity” (Watson Caring Science Institute, 2021). Then compare it Rogers’s Human-unitary human beings. According to the human-unitary human Razoni & Baker is defined as an individual that is also a unified whole, with its unique traits that cannot be examined by just looking at, describing, or summarizing its parts (2021). Rogers’s concept is similar to Watson’s concept because they both view the patient as a whole, Watson talks about caring for the mind-body and spirit not treating one aspect but the whole human being. 


The difference between the two concepts is Watson was referring to preserving human dignity by examining beyond just the physical and how the nurse can have an impact on that patient whilst Rogers is looking at the environmental impact. A person “like me” would find it very confusing, reading both theories and trying to see the differences send my brain into a frenzy especially for Rogers’s theory. According to Razoni & Baker, one of the assumptions of Rogers’s theory is man is a united whole having integrity and displaying traits that vary from the sum of his parts. 



Many researchers have commended the self-care deficit nursing theory (SCDNT) developed by Orem as a means of improving patients’ health outcomes through nurses’ contributions. 

          Advanced nursing practice is based on critical thinking and understanding the required theoretical background (
Parker & Hill, 2017
). It can be conceptualized as the practice of fostering human health within a social context. Advanced nursing practice is underpinned by discipline-specific theoretical knowledge that draws on philosophical perspectives and ontological, epistemological, and methodological frameworks based on an ethical approach toward humans and the world they inhabit (
Parse et al., 2000
). One practical consequence of using the SCDNT is that it enables APNs to use nurse-sensitive metrics when evaluating their clinical practice. Thus, Orem’s theory offers a valuable framework for reflection on patient care and enhances our understanding of the ongoing fluidity and adaptability of advanced nursing practice and primary healthcare. 

          Watson’s Theory in comparison to Orem’s Theory highlights concepts such as soul, spiritual self, transpersonal caring, metaphysics, and phenomenal field. These elements embedded in Watson’s theory can help nurses deliver holistic care and attend to all the dimensions of the patients. The integration of these dimensions may promote more effective care than focusing solely on curing patients, which is not always possible. Tin turn, this will facilitate the study of Watson’s theory in undergraduate programs and its application by nurses in their work environment, allowing them to work with the concepts in their area of expertise. Therefore, the implications for nursing education, nursing practice, and the scientific community include the description of a theory that can assist nurses in delivering holistic care, putting aside the predominant focus on treating and curing diseases that still exist in professional practice. The description of Jean Watson’s theory showed that it helps nurses provide more effective care while considering its transcendent dimensions. The description of concepts, definitions, relationships, and structures can facilitate the understanding of her work, allowing the Theory of Human Caring to be applied to different contexts. 

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