Psychology research Research paper, please read file attached to follow rubric
-Lab assignments feedback attached explain the Background and what to write about
-Final paper overview and “Psyc280 final research paper” explain how to write in APA
– Lab assignment 2-5 explain the labs in detail PSYC280 Final Research Paper – APA Format style
Title page (first page)
● Running head (abbreviated title) and page number (1)
Purpose: To provide an abbreviated version of the title. It appears on the
top of the right-hand journal pages to remind the reader which article they
■ Include the words “Running Head”
followed by a colon.
■ Maximum 50 letters, spaces, and
punctuation, excluding the words
■ Avoid use of commas.
■ Use all capital letters.
■ Place near the top of the page.
■ Flush left.
● Title of the paper
Purpose: To review the main idea of the paper.
■ Give names of independent and dependent
■ 10-12 words.
■ First letter of each main word is capitalized.
■ Center each line of the title.
● Author name(s) (byline) and affiliations
■ Use your name.
■ Give the name of your school.
● Author note
■ Write the name of this course.
● What to write
○ A one-sentence statement of the problem or research question
○ A brief description of the participants
○ A brief description of the research method and procedures
○ A report of the results
○ A statement about the conclusions or implications
○ Write concisely
● ABSTRACT – format
○ The abstract is always the second page.
○ Center the word “Abstract”.
○ Only the first letter is capitalized.
○ Do NOT italicize or underline the word
○ Do NOT indent first word of the abstract.
○ Use one paragraph only.
○ 150-250 words
○ Usually written last –
● What to write
○ A general introduction to the topic of the paper
■ Begin by identifying the research
○ A review of the relevant literature:
■ For each article you review, be sure that the
■ What variables were manipulated
■ What variables were measured.
■ The results and conclusions.
■ The review should be concise, but sometime it is
necessary to give a more complete review (the
sample provided gives a fair amount of detail).
■ Use the author-date method of citation (author’s or
authors’ last name(s) and date of publication for
■ There is no need to repeat the year if you are
referring to the same publication in the same
○ A statement of the problem or purpose of the study with relevant variables
■ Be very explicit:
■ “The purpose of …”
■ “It was hypothesized that …”
■ The literature reviewed is the basis for the
■ Researchers frequently base their predictions on theories.
■ Limit the use of “I” or “we” in all sections of the manuscript.
■ There is no formal limit to the length of the introduction, but
the typical range is between two and five type-written
double- spaced pages.
○ A description of the research strategy that used to evaluate the hypothesis
or to obtain an answer to the research question
● Introduction – format
○ Repeat the title.
■ Center the title.
■ Do NOT repeat the author’s name or
■ The introduction is NOT labeled. (Do not write
■ Indent the first word of every paragraph 1⁄2 inch.
To provide in great detail the characteristics of the participants, the apparatus and/or materials
used, and the procedure (what experiences the participants had from the beginning to the end of
the study). There should be enough detail in the method section to permit someone else to
replicate the study.
● What to write
○ A relatively detailed description of exactly how the variables were
defined and measured and how the research study was conducted
○ Subsections of the method section
■ Participant (Subjects) subsection
■ Who participated.
■ How many participated.
■ How they were selected.
■ Identify important participant characteristics
(e.g., gender, age, ethnicity).
■ Procedure subsection
■ Step by step description of the methodology used.
■ Review what was done to the participants from the
beginning to end of the study.
■ Instructions are included verbatim only if they are
an experimental manipulation. Otherwise, they are
■ The design of the experiment and how participants
were assigned to each group are mentioned in this
■ Materials or Apparatus subsection
■ Either the apparatus OR materials
heading is used. The apparatus heading is used if
you are primarily describing equipment. The
materials heading is used if you are describing
word lists, reading material, etc.
■ Manufacturer’s name and the model number of any
apparatus commercially available must be reported.
■ Report all physical characteristics ( e.g.,
measurements, color, intensity of lights or tones) of
self-made apparatus. The details provided must
permit the reader to duplicate the apparatus.
■ Psychologists use the metric system. Therefore, all
measurements are given in m, mm, or cm, NOT in
inches or feet.
● Method – format
○ The method section follows the introduction – on the same page if space
○ The word Method is centered and is NOT underlined or italicized.
○ The Participants, Materials, and Procedure headings are NOT centered or
indented, but are italicized. the text begins on the next line and is indented
● What to write
○ A summary of the data and the statistical analyses
Provides a complete and unbiased reporting of the findings,
just the facts, with no discussion of the findings
Results can be summarized through figures, tables, or in the
text, but can only be presented once.
● Results – format
○ Center heading
○ Begins immediately following the method section—not starting on a new
■ When reporting means, always include associated
measures of variability (e.g., SD, variance).
■ The letter that represents the type of test used is
italicized only if it is not a Greek letter. Note, the
symbol for chi square, is NOT italicized.
■ Put spaces between numbers and symbols as you
■ The number in the parentheses represents the
degrees of freedom (df value). Do NOT type the
■ When reporting the results of an analysis of
variance there are two df values.
■ The p is always italicized.
■ Do not confuse the < and > sign.
■ Give a verbal description of the results, end the
statement with a comma, and follow the statement
with statistical evidence. (The phrase before the
comma is a complete sentence.)
■ Do NOT interpret the results in the Results section.
■ Refer to specific tables and figures in the text (e.g.,
“Figure 1 indicates …”), so the reader will know
when to refer to them
■ The figures are placed at the end of the manuscript,
but will be inserted in the text when printed.
■ When a specific figure and its number are referred
to, “Figure” is capitalized, and a numeral is used.
■ If the results are summarized in a table, the words
“Table 1” must be mentioned in the text, so the
reader will know to look for the table.
■ Provide a brief description of the results seen on
■ If the F value is less than 1, simply report F < 1 and omit the df and p values. ● Discussion ○ What to write ■ Restates the hypothesis, summarizes the results, and then presents a discussion of the interpretation, implications, and possible applications of the results ■ Tie in the results of the present experiment with those reported in the literature. ■ Discussion sections frequently begin with a review of the major results. ■ The results are tied in with the hypotheses stated in the introduction. ■ Indicate if they believe the results can be generalized. ■ Limitations - Discuss problems you encountered when carrying out the research and suggestions for improving the research effort. ■ Elaborate on contradictory results ■ Discussion sections frequently end with a review of the implications of the results. ○ Discussion - format ■ Begins immediately after the results section—not starting on a new page ■ Center heading. References ● What to write ○ Listing of complete references for all sources of information cited in the report ○ Organized alphabetically by the last name of the first author ● References - format ○ Begins on a new page ○ Recommendation: include the digital object identifier (DOI) if it is available for a source ○ Center heading. ○ References are NOT numbered. ■ All references are in alphabetical order. ■ The last name appears first, followed by the initials. ■ The first line of each reference is flush left and the subsequent lines are indented 1⁄2 inch. ■ The ampersand (&) is used if there is more than one author. ■ There is a comma before the &. ■ The year appears in parentheses and is followed by a period. ■ The first letter of the first word is the only one capitalized in the title, and the title is followed by a period. ■ The name of the journal article is NOT abbreviated. ■ The journal title is italicized and the first letter of each main word is capitalized. ■ The volume number and pages follow the journal title. ■ All numbers are separated by commas. ■ Do NOT use the words “volume” or “pages”. ■ Only the volume number is italicized. ■ End with a period. Tables and Figures - APA - Style Table and Figures - Helpful links ● As a general rule, tables and figures supplement the text—they should not duplicate information that has already been presented in text form. ● Any table or figure should be mentioned in the text by number. ● The text should point out some of the more important aspects of the figure or table. ● Each table or figure is on a new page. Tables: ● Each table is placed on a separate page. ● Place the page header and page number on the top of each table. ● Table number and title are placed on the top of the table. ● “Table 1” is NOT italicized. ● “Table 1” is NOT indented or centered. ● The first letter of each main word in the table title is capitalized. ● The table title is italicized. Figures: ● The page is titled “Figure Caption” and the title is centered. ● “Figure 1” is italicized. ● Nothing is indented on the figure caption page. ● All figure captions are placed on the same page, with figures clearly numbered. https://coastdistrict.instructure.com/courses/90966/pages/apa-style-table-and-figures-helpful-links ● Each figure is drawn on a separate page and is placed after the Figure Caption page. ● Page is not titled or numbered. ● The vertical axis should be about two- thirds the length of the horizontal axis. ● If either axis does not begin at zero, a double slash mark must be made to indicate the discontinuity. ● All axes must be labeled. ● The legend that identifies the group names appears within the axes on the figure. ● Do NOT put the figure caption (same as figure title) on the figure. It is placed on a separate page at the end of the report. ● Figures are drawn in black (NO colors are allowed). The Elements of an APA-Style Research Report: Appendix ● Presents detailed information ● Useful, but would interrupt the flow of information if presented in the body of the paper ● Refer to Table 16.3 for a checklist of APA formatting issues for each report section