# Variables, Measurement, And SPSS SPSS is a statistical software program that allows you to enter these variables into a spreadsheet format and record the m

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SPSS is a statistical software program that allows you to enter these variables into a spreadsheet format and record the measurements from a sample. Additionally, SPSS allows you to perform statistical analysis. Before launching into your analyses, though, it is important to understand how the variables are measured. That understanding will help you interpret the SPSS output.

For this Assignment, you will examine data to analyze independent and dependent variables, determine how they are measured, and decipher whether a social change question can be answered and the implications for such change.

To prepare for this Assignment:

• Review the learning resources attached.
• Using the SPSS software, open the High School Longitudinal Study dataset attached and then choose two variables that interest you.

For this Assignment:

Write a 2-page summary and include the following:

• Identify each variable
• A description of what the each of the variables measure.
• Identify and describe the unit of analysis.
• A description and explanation of the levels of measurement for each variable (i.e., nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio).
• Explain how you might conceive these variables to be used to answer a social change question. What might be the implications for social change?
• Do not rely on only your opinion; do some research about the topic and provide some citations to support your argument.

Support your summary using appropriate scholarly citations and references. Use proper APA format.

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Introduction*and*Demonstration*of*SPSS

Introduction*and*Demonstration*of*SPSS
Program Transcript

MATT JONES: Hi, my*name is*Dr. Matt Jones*and I’m a quantitative
methodologist. And today*I’m here to give you a brief introduction and tutorial to
SPSS. There are two sides*to SPSS, the Data View and the Variable View. If you
look*down at the bottom*of the screen where my*cursor*is, you’ll see that the data
view is*currently*highlighted. These are the raw values*for*the data for*each case
for*each respondent in this*particular*database.

If we click*on the Variable View the screen takes*us*over*to the information about
all of the variables*in our*dataset. The first column is*the Variable Name. And this*
is*the name that is*given to each variable in SPSS.

The second column tells*us*what type of variable it is. Typically*for*most of our*
basic*data analysis, we will be dealing with numeric*variables. If we move over*to
the Label column, which can be expanded by*just placing your*cursor*over*at the
top, and expanding or*either*minimizing, this*provides*us*the label or*the
description in quote, unquote “plain English”*for*each of the variables.

It’s also important to note the values*for*each specific*variable. If you click*on the
Value Box, a little gray*box*is*highlighted next to it. If you go ahead and click*on
that, it will open up another*window. Here you will see the value labels*for*each
value.

Here we can see each variable is*coded with values*of 0, 1, 2, 8, and 9. In this*
case for*this*data set, a value of 0 equals*in applicable 1 equals*yes, 2 equals*no,
8 equals*don’t know, and 9 equals*no answer. You can go ahead and cancel that
box.

If you click*on missing cells, a little gray*box*is*highlighted off to the right. Go
ahead and click*on that, and that brings*up discrete missing values*for*this*
specific*variable. Here you can see that the discrete missing values*of 0, 8, and 9
are coded as*being missing.

It’s important to note this*information because these values*will not be used in
any*statistical analysis*within the set. If we hit Cancel and go back*to our*values*
we can see that those specific*values*of 0, 8, and 9 reference inapplicable, don’t
know, or*no answer. Therefore, they*will not be used in analysis*and treated as*
missing data.

It’s also important to note the column Measure. There are three options*here,
scale, ordinal, and nominal. This*refers to the level of measurement for*that
specific*variable. It’s important that these be accurately*entered because SPSS*
will not perform*some functions*because it makes*assumptions*about levels*of
measurement for*certain procedures.

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Introduction*and*Demonstration*of*SPSS

You could also obtain variable information by*going to the top of the screen,
clicking on Utilities, and clicking on Variables. Off to the left hand side of the
screen you’ll see a list of all the variables*within the specific*dataset. The
information to the right tells*you specifically*about the variable. The variable
name, the label, the missing values, its*level of measurement, and the labels*for*
that specific*value.

You can choose any*variable within this*data set, and it will provide you with that
specific*information. You can also click*on Go To, which will take you to that
specific*variable. Here you will see that that variable is*highlighted.

And that’s a quick*overview of the two sides*of SPSS, Data View and Variable
View. If you have further*questions, be sure and utilize your*textbook*and also
your*instructor*as*a valuable resource.

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