Week 9 Select one of the following case studies (located in your text): Case 14-1: Handling the Unhealthy Employee. Case 14-2: You Are Not Hurt? Good—

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Week 9 Select one of the following case studies (located in your text):

Case 14-1: Handling the Unhealthy Employee.
Case 14-2: You Are Not Hurt? Good—You’re Fired!
Case 15-1: CEO Compensation: Do They Deserve Rock Star Pay?
Case 15-2: Microsoft, Nokia, and the Finnish Government: A Promise Made, a Promise Broken?

Then complete the following:

Add your opinion about the choices and decisions being made—if this was your company, would you make this choice?
What would you do differently? 1

Workplace Safety, Health, and Security
Chapter 14
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Workplace Safety and the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) 1970
Requires employers to pursue workplace safety.

Workplace safety deals with physical protection of employees from injury or illness while on job.

Employers must meet all OSHA safety standards, maintain records of injuries and deaths due to workplace accidents, and submit to on-site inspections when notified.
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Workplace Safety and The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) 1970
OSH Act requires employers to pursue workplace safety.
Workplace safety deals with the physical protection of people from injury or illness while on the job.
Employers must meet all OSHA safety standards, maintain records of injuries and deaths due to workplace accidents, and submit to on-site inspections when notified.

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OSHA
General duties clause covers all firms and states that:
Employers furnish a place of employment free from hazards that cause or are likely to cause death or physical harm.
Employees have a duty to comply with occupational safety standards, rules, and regulations.

Division within Department of Labor charged with overseeing OSHA was created to “ensure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women by setting and enforcing standards through three divisions: training, outreach, education and assistance.”

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What does OSHA do?
Sets and communicates federal safety and health standards to employers.

Occupational safety and health inspections must be made without any advance notice in response to:
Imminent dangers
Catastrophes
Worker complaints
Targeted inspections
Follow-up inspections
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OSHA is responsible for setting federal safety and health standards and promulgating those standards to employers. OSHA is also the responsible agency of the federal government for occupational safety and health inspections. Inspections are made without any advance notice to the employer and are done based on the following issues (in priority order):
Imminent danger
Catastrophes (fatalities or hospitalizations)
Worker complaints and referrals
Targeted inspections (particular hazards, high injury rates)
Follow-up inspections
http://www.osha.gov/Publications/3439at-a-glance.pdf (retrieved July 31, 2017).

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Employer and Employee Rights and Responsibilities Under OSHA
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OSHA Inspections and Employer Rights
To get inspector’s credentials and receive information on reason for inspection.

To refuse to allow inspection without a court order.

To receive a copy of complaint (without employee’s name).

To have a company representative accompany inspectors.
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OSHA Inspections and
Employer Rights
To refuse to be interviewed or if they agree to interviews, they can request an employer representative be present or interview be held in private.

To receive legal representation during interview and to end interview at any time.

Employers cannot retaliate against employees who take part in an interview and tell the truth.
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So assuming that the inspection is allowed, we need to be aware of some things that we have a right to, and that we should do, during the inspection.
If the inspection is being conducted due to a worker complaint, we have the right to get a copy of the complaint (without the employee’s name), and we want to do so because we want to know what is being alleged.
Secondly, we have a right to have a company representative accompany inspectors as they go through their site visit, and we, as the HR representative, want to accompany them.

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OSHA and Hazard
Communication Standards
Employers keep information at work sites that describes any chemical hazards that may be present on site.

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provide information on a hazardous chemical and its characteristics.
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OSHA requires that all employers maintain information at each work site that describes any chemical hazards that may be present on-site. A new set of Hazard Communication Standards (HCS) was promulgated in 2012 and can be found on the OSHA website (http://www.osha.gov). Under federal law, “All employers with hazardous chemicals in their workplaces are required to have a hazard communication program, including container labels, safety data sheets, and employee training.” Safety Data Sheets (SDS) are documents that provide information on a hazardous chemical and its characteristics. The OSHA-required SDS format is provided in Exhibit 14-2 (Items 12-15 are non-mandatory). The SDS provides employees with a quick reference to the hazards of working with a particular chemical compound. Electronic versions of SDS are acceptable, as long as there are no barriers to immediate access at the worksite. https://www.osha.gov/FedReg_osha_pdf/FED20120326.pdf (retrieved July 31, 2017).

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Material Safety Data Sheet Format
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Material Safety Data Sheet Format

Lussier, Human Resources Management 3e. © SAGE Publications, 2019.

OSHA and Violations, Citations, and Penalties
Willful–employer knew a hazardous condition existed but made no effort to eliminate it.

Serious–hazard could cause injury or illness that would most likely result in death or significant physical harm.

Other than serious–any illness or injury likely to result from hazard is unlikely to cause death or serious physical harm, but violation has a direct impact on safety and health.
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Willful and/or repeated violations can bring the employer up to a US$126,749 fine for each violation. Failure to abate violations can cost the employer as much as US$12,675 per day while the violation continues to exist, and serious violations can also cost the employer a US$12,675 fine.

https://www.osha.gov/penalties/ retrieved July 31, 2017.

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OSHA and Violations, Citations,
and Penalties
De Minimis
Violation has no direct or immediate safety or health danger. Does not result in citations or penalties.

Failure to abate
Employer has not corrected a previous violation for which a citation was issued and settlement date has passed.

Repeated
Employer has been previously cited for same type of violation within previous 5 years.

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National Institute of Industrial and Occupational Health (NIOSH)
Works under umbrella of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Conducts research to reduce work-related illnesses and injuries.
Promotes safe and healthy workplaces through interventions, recommendations, and capacity building.
Enhances international workplace safety and health through global collaborations.

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Employee Health
State of physical and psychological wellness in workforce.
Work-life balance
Spillover–effect of work and family on one another that generate similarities between two domains.

To keep a better work-life balance, firms offer more work-family benefits, such as flexible work schedules, child and elder care.
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Meeting OSHA requirements is necessary, but there are many other aspects to maintaining good employee health. Employee health is the state of physical and psychological wellness in the workforce. We have to consider both physical and psychological health in order to have a strong workforce. We need to provide our employees with the ability to maintain both.
In analyzing the needs of the workforce, work–life balance is high on the list of issues facing both employers and employees. Thus, individual employees and their leaders are seeking work-life balance. Work-life balance is a perpetually hot topic. With mobile technology, especially the smartphone, the boundary between work and nonwork hours becomes fuzzy. Some 44% of Internet users regularly perform some job tasks outside of work. as employees even check in at work during their weekends and vacations, increasing the likelihood of work-family spillover. On the other side, employees are using company electronic devises for personal use during work hours, such as social media and shopping. Spillover is the effect of work and family on one another that generates similarities between the two domains.

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Employee Health Programs
Employee assistance programs (EAP)
Counseling and other services provided to employees that help resolve personal issues that may affect their work.

Employee wellness programs (EWP)
Cater to employees’ physical welfare through education and training programs, such as health education, training and fitness, weight and lifestyle management, and health risk assessment services.

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Employee Health and Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD)
Ergonomics
Science of fitting workplace conditions and job demands to capabilities of working population.
Purpose
To reduce stress and to eliminate injuries and disorders associated with overuse of muscles, bad posture, and repeated tasks.
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Safety and Health Management
and Training
Includes offering EAPs, EWPs, and stress management training.

Firms that keep number of accidents and incidents low, generally see lower absenteeism and increased job satisfaction.

When firms improve two of four most important variables at work (absenteeism and job satisfaction), they are better assured of increasing productivity over time.

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Stress
Body’s emotional and/or physical reaction to environmental demands.
Functional (acute eustress) stress
Helps improve performance by challenging and motivating people to meet objectives.
Dysfunctional stress (distress)
Decreases performance and may result in burnout–a constant lack of interest and motivation to perform one’s job.
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People often have internal reactions to external environmental stimuli. Stress is the body’s reaction to environmental demands. This reaction can be emotional and/or physical, and can be caused by a lack of work-life balance. According to Forbes, 35% of Americans have thought about leaving a job because of stress at work, and 42% have actually done so! As stated in Chapter 1, absenteeism is costly, and there is a relationship between absenteeism and workplace stress. Stress levels are on a continuum from low to high. But stress is an individual perception matter. Some people are better at handling stress than others. In the same situation, one person may be very comfortable and stress free while another is stressed out. In this section, we discuss functional and dysfunctional stress, the causes of stress, how to manage it, and the stress tug-of-war.

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Negative Consequences of
Dysfunctional Stress

Primary cause of absenteeism and costs an estimated US$300 billion a year in absenteeism, decreased productivity, employee turnover, and medical, legal, and insurance fees.
Symptoms
Weak immune system
Aging
Weight gain
Decrease in sex drive
Lack of sleep
Death

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Causes of Job Stress
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Type A personalities–experience more stress.

Organizational culture and change–the more positive the culture and the less threat of major changes, the less employee stress.

Management behavior–workers with awful bosses are more likely to report stress-related problems.

Type of work–employees who enjoy their work are less stressed.

Interpersonal relations–employees who like their coworkers are less stressed.

Lussier, Human Resources Management 3e. © SAGE Publications, 2019.

Stress Management
Eliminating or reducing stress and making it functional.

Six techniques
Time management
Relaxation (meditation, deep breathing, muscle relaxation, enjoyable activities, sleep)
Nutrition
Exercise
Positive thinking
Support network
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The Stress Tug-of-War
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On the left are causes of stress trying to pull you toward burnout. On the right are stress management techniques you use to keep you in the center. If the stress becomes too powerful, it will pull us off center to the left, and we may suffer burnout and dysfunctional stress with low performance. If there is no stress, we tend to move to the right and just take it easy and perform at low levels. The stress tug-of-war is an ongoing game. Our main objective is to stay in the center with functional stress, which leads to high levels of performance.
[Pickup, Insert Exhibit 14-5 from page 543 of Human Resource Management 2e]
Shellenbarger, S. (2012, January 24). When stress is good for you. The Wall Street Journal, pp. D1, D5.

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Workplace Security
Management of personnel, equipment, and facilities to maintain protection.
Concerned with mitigating risks of violence, bomb threats, management of natural and man-made disasters, risk to company computer systems and intranets, and so on.
Cyber security–use of tools and processes to protect organizational computer systems and networks.
Anger and violence–created by toxic physical work environment (uncomfortable work space, noise, odors, heat, ventilation, and color).

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Signs of Potential Workplace Violence
Watch for passive-aggressive behavior in rising steps related to an unresolved conflict.
Take verbal threats seriously.
Watch nonverbal communication, stalking, and/or harassment.
Watch damage to property and for indications of alcohol and drug use.
Include any isolated employees.
Look for presence of weapons or objects that might be used as weapons.

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There were 417 workplace homicides in 2015, and workplace shootings rose by 15%. While this is serious, and we need to take precautions to respond if such incidents happen, we should also understand that workplace homicides are still extremely rare and that we should not panic over such statistics. These 417 homicides took place in an environment with tens of millions of businesses. So for now, let’s focus on anger that can lead to violence and how to prevent it. Human resource managers have reported increased violence between employees, stating it can happen anywhere. And don’t think that this is just an issue of men harming women. Women commit nearly a quarter of all threats or attacks. There has also been an increase in violence between outsiders and employees, such as customers shooting employees and other customers. L. Nagele-Piazza, “How Can HR Professionals Respond to an Active-Shooter Situation in the Workplace?”, SHRM (Jun. 6, 2017), https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/legal-and-compliance/employment-law/pages/disgruntled-former-employee-responsible-for-workplace-shooting-in-orlando.aspx , retrieved Aug. 1, 2017.

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Organizational Prevention of Violence
Start with a written zero-tolerance policy.
Train employees to deal with anger and prevent violence.
Take quick disciplinary action against employees who are violent at work. Otherwise, aggression will spread.
Have a system for dealing with grievances and track incidents of violence.
Screen job applicants for past or potential violence.
Develop a healthy and positive work environment.

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Individual Prevention of Violence
Screen (perform background checks on) applicants and test them for substance abuse to prevent “negligent hires.”

Offer preventive programs, including drug and alcohol testing, that can protect firm from liability.
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General Security Policies
Prepare and train employees for emergencies, such as fires, floods, earthquakes, severe weather, terrorist attacks, and bomb threats. Provide grief counseling if needed.

Establish an emergency response plan whose priorities:
Protect human life and environment
Prevent/minimize personal injury
Preserve physical assets
Restore programs and return operations to normal

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